Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland and the fourth most populous city in the United Kingdom. Located along both banks of the River Clyde, 20 miles (32 km) from the mouth of that river on the western or Atlantic coast, Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and forms an independent municipal area that lies entirely within the historic county of Lanarkshire. Scotland is part of the United Kingdom (UK) and occupies the northern third of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south and is home to nearly 800 small islands, including the northern islands of Shetland and Orkney, the Hebrides, Arran and Skye.
In contrast to the old and larger Edinburgh Festival, which takes place in the last three weeks of August, Glasgow festivals fill up the calendar throughout the year. The city is represented both in the House of Commons in London and in the Scottish Parliament in Holyrood, Edinburgh. It also has Glasgow Airport, which operates flights to and from destinations around the world. The start of the Industrial Revolution saw a rapid expansion in Glasgow's population and economy, making it one of the world's leading centers for chemicals, textiles and engineering - particularly in shipbuilding.
The Glasgow electoral region of the Scottish Parliament encompasses the Glasgow City Hall area, a northwestern part of South Lanarkshire and a small eastern part of Renfrewshire. In fact, Glasgow dominated this type of manufacturing, with 25% of all locomotives in the world being built in the area at one point. East of Glasgow Cross is St Andrew's in the Square - the oldest post-Reformation church in Scotland, built between 1739 and 1757. It showcases a Presbyterian grandeur typical of churches built by wealthy tobacco merchants. Glasgow has a large urban transport system managed primarily by Strathclyde Transport Association (SPT).
Saint Mungo is also said to have preached a sermon with the words 'Lord: Let Glasgow flourish by preaching your word and praising your name'. The city has hosted numerous exhibitions over the years, such as the Glasgow Garden Festival in 1988, being named City of Architecture for 1999, European Capital of Culture for 1990, National City of Sport from 1995-1999 and European Capital of Sport for 2003. With a reputation as an established financial services hub, along with comprehensive support services, Glasgow continues to attract and grow new businesses. Global ship management is carried out by maritime and logistics companies based in Glasgow, employing more than 100,000 seafarers. Glasgow's neighboring cities include Paisley to its west - which is also part of its urban area - Ayr to its south-west, Hamilton to its southeast - Scotland's fourth largest city - Livingston to its east and Falkirk to its northeast. All international airports are easily accessible by public transport; GLA and EDI are directly connected by bus routes from Glasgow's main bus station and there is a direct rail connection to PIK from Glasgow Central Station.