The surrounding area is sometimes referred to as the Borderlands. The official border between England and Scotland was established in 1237 by the Treaty of York, between England and Scotland. The border stretches 154 km from Lamberton, north of Berwick-upon-Tweed in the east, to Gretna, near the Solway Estuary, in the west. The map shows that the River Tweed, in part, forms a natural border between Coldstream and Berwick, but just before the border reaches Berwick, it leaves the river and runs north around the city of Berwick.
The reason is that in 1482 the city was captured by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the future King Richard III, although it did not officially merge with England. England has administered the city since this date. After the Treaty of Union of 1707, which united Scotland and England to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the border continues to form the boundary of two different legal jurisdictions, since the treaty between the two countries guaranteed the continuous separation of English law and Scottish law. Scotland is part of the United Kingdom (United Kingdom) and occupies the northern third of Great Britain.
The Scottish mainland shares a border with England to the south. It is home to nearly 800 small islands, including the northern islands of Shetland and Orkney, the Hebrides, Arran and Skye. Scotland, the northernmost of the four parts of the United Kingdom, occupying about a third of the island of Great Britain. The name Scotland derives from the Latin Scotia, land of the Scots, a Celtic people from Ireland that settled on the west coast of Great Britain around the 5th century AD.
The name Caledonia has often been applied to Scotland, especially in poetry. It is derived from Caledonii, the Roman name for a tribe from the northern part of what is now Scotland. All of Scotland was covered by layers of ice during the Pleistocene glaciations and the landscape is greatly affected by glaciation. As one of the Celtic nations, Scotland and Scottish culture are represented at interceltic events in the country and around the world.
Scotland has five international airports offering regular services to Europe, North America and Asia, as well as domestic services to England, Northern Ireland and Wales. By inheritance in 1603, James VI of Scotland became king of England and Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Since decentralization in 1999, Scotland has established stronger working relationships in the other two decentralized governments, the Welsh Government and the Executive of Northern Ireland. He says that Scotland, with its oil and gas reserves, will be a more important trading partner for what is left of the United Kingdom than Brazil or Russia, so London will have no interest in raising barriers.
The SFA is also responsible for Scotland's national football team, whose supporters are commonly referred to as the Tartan Army. For health and post districts, and for several other governmental and non-governmental organizations, such as churches, there are other long-standing methods of subdividing Scotland for administrative purposes. Scotland has an open, Western-style mixed economy, closely linked to the rest of the United Kingdom and the rest of the world. Scotland is surrounded by several bodies of water that depend on the coast, with the North Sea in the east separating us from the Scandinavian states of Europe, and the Atlantic Ocean in the north and west that separates us from Iceland, the United States and Canada.
The oldest Norse settlements were in the north west of Scotland, but they eventually conquered many areas along the coast. He runs three national television stations: BBC One Scotland, BBC Scotland and the Gaelic-language broadcaster BBC Alba, and the national radio stations, BBC Radio Scotland and BBC Radio nan Gàidheal, among others. The west of Scotland is usually warmer than the east, due to the influence of the currents of the Atlantic Ocean and the colder surface temperatures of the North Sea. However, due to the deep penetration of the sea into lakes and estuaries (estuaries), most places are 40 to 50 miles (65 to 80 km) from the sea, and only 30 miles (50 km) of land separate the Clyde Estuary and the Forth Estuary, the two large estuarine inlets on the west and east coasts, respectively.