The area surrounding Scotland and England is often referred to as the Borderlands. The official border between the two countries was established in 1237 by the Treaty of York. This border stretches 154 km from Lamberton, north of Berwick-upon-Tweed in the east, to Gretna, near the Solway Estuary, in the west. The map shows that the River Tweed, in part, forms a natural border between Coldstream and Berwick.
However, just before the border reaches Berwick, it leaves the river and runs north around the city of Berwick. This is because in 1482, the city was captured by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who would later become King Richard III. Since then, England has administered the city. After the Treaty of Union of 1707, which united Scotland and England to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the border continues to form the boundary of two different legal jurisdictions.
This is because the treaty between the two countries guaranteed the continuous separation of English law and Scottish law. Scotland is part of the United Kingdom (UK) and occupies the northern third of Great Britain. The Scottish mainland shares a border with England to the south and is home to nearly 800 small islands, including Shetland and Orkney in the north, as well as Arran and Skye. The name Scotland derives from Latin Scotia, meaning “land of the Scots” – a Celtic people from Ireland who settled on the west coast of Great Britain around the 5th century AD.
The name Caledonia has often been applied to Scotland, especially in poetry. It is derived from Caledonii – a Roman name for a tribe from northern Scotland. All of Scotland was covered by layers of ice during Pleistocene glaciations and this has had a major impact on its landscape. Scotland is one of four Celtic nations and its culture is represented at interceltic events both in Scotland and around the world. The country has five international airports offering regular services to Europe, North America and Asia, as well as domestic services to England, Northern Ireland and Wales.
By inheritance in 1603, James VI of Scotland became king of England and Ireland – thus forming a personal union of three kingdoms. The Scottish Football Association (SFA) is responsible for Scotland's national football team – whose supporters are commonly referred to as “the Tartan Army”. For health and post districts, as well as several other governmental and non-governmental organizations such as churches – there are other long-standing methods for subdividing Scotland for administrative purposes. Scotland has an open Western-style mixed economy that is closely linked to both the rest of the United Kingdom and to other countries around the world. It is surrounded by several bodies of water that depend on its coast – with the North Sea in the east separating it from Scandinavian states in Europe and with the Atlantic Ocean in the north and west separating it from Iceland, USA and Canada. The oldest Norse settlements were located in northwest Scotland but they eventually conquered many areas along its coast. The country runs three national television stations: BBC One Scotland, BBC Scotland and Gaelic-language broadcaster BBC Alba; as well as national radio stations BBC Radio Scotland and BBC Radio nan Gàidheal among others. The west coast of Scotland tends to be warmer than its east coast due to influence from Atlantic Ocean currents and colder surface temperatures from North Sea waters.
However due to deep penetration of sea into lakes and estuaries most places are 40-50 miles (65-80 km) away from sea – with only 30 miles (50 km) separating Clyde Estuary from Forth Estuary – two large estuarine inlets on west and east coasts respectively. Scotland will be an important trading partner for what remains of UK than Brazil or Russia according to experts – so London will have no interest in raising barriers.